Archives for the month of: September, 2013

This is a follow-up note about the Communication Revolution’s role in farm labor immigration, which I posted about last night, since it’s at the heart of my scholarly interest in the role of mass media in migration and immigration. Lucila Vargas of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and I have speculated that the Communication Revolution has an effect that Martin does not address.

As we argue in the New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, the immigrant-media landscape has fundamentally changed in the United States. Before the emergence of Spanish-language media, each generation of non-English-speaking immigrants to the United States had developed a foreign-language press, but subsequently assimilated and acculturated to American life by learning English and becoming involved in their communities. As a result, their attention shifted to English-language, mainstream media, which led to foreign-language publications to fade out. The seminal work in this topic is University of Chicago sociologist Robert Park’s classic The Immigrant Press and Its Control.

But in the twenty-first century, we argue, foreign-language media may be slower to die out because more migrants think of themselves as transnationals with dual national identities —  they’re not solely American and they’re not solely citizens of their home countries. The reason is that the personal networks they maintain keep them connected to both communities.

This transnationalism could combine with the proliferation of satellite, Internet, and other communication technologies to make it less likely that the current wave of immigrants will abandon Spanish. As a result, Spanish-language newspapers, for example, could endure longer than the foreign-language publications that served previous immigrants. Thus, their role as preserver of native heritage will take on greater significance as print media’s dominance fades and digital media industries reach maturity.

Don’t bet on immigration reform being enacted in the United States, farm labor expert Philip Martin says. Even if immigration reform happened, the result would not be higher pay. Instead, we’d see reduced demand for farm labor through mechanization and farms going out of business.

Martin delivered the first lecture in the Auburn University College of Agriculture’s 2013-14 E.T. York Distinguished Lecturer series on Monday night. He is a full professor and chair of the University of California at Davis’ Comparative Immigration and Integration Program and editor of Migration News and Rural Migration News.

Martin is no radical. He pointed out he has been picketed by labor activists as well as produce industry leaders. As many journalists like to say, if you’ve drawn fire from both sides of a controversy, you must have done something right.

There’s a simple reason Martin predicts nothing will change: On one side of the debate is the “no borders” argument, which favors amnesty for all unauthorized immigrants and migrants and no control over border crossing at all. On the other side is the “no migrants” argument, which favors border enforcement and no or very low migration, and the construction of a wall separating the United States and Mexico. This dichotomy, Martin said, shuts down consideration of any middle ground. For this reason, the status quo has continued for the last 20 years.

“The debate is very polarized,” Martin said. “And those two sides are happier with the status quo than they are with the other side’s solution.”

The status quo is a U.S. agricultural economy in which most labor is done not by farm owners, but hired hands. Most are in the country without authorization, and most are from countries much poorer than the United States.

This is part of a global pattern set up by two kinds of inequality and three revolutions in the last 200 years: economic and demographic inequalities, and revolutions of communication, transportation, and human rights.

Demographic inequality is a state in which industrialized nations’ populations are shrinking while developing nations’ populations are growing. Economic inequality is such that industrialized nations have per capita income 10 times that of developing nations. These factors push poor laborers who aspire to a better life out of their homelands and pull them into rich countries. Most of the labor migration in the world moves from south to north because labor goes from poor, developing countries to seek opportunity in rich, industrialized countries, and wealth is concentrated in the north.

Immigrants founded this country. For most of our history, immigration was unregulated or lightly regulated. From time to time, nativists have pushed to curtail immigration from certain countries who threatened the cultural and economic status of the white English-descended founders and every other group that assimilated into American culture. As early as the 1700s, Benjamin Franklin complained that Germans would ruin Pennsylvania. When Americans discovered that accomplished Latin Americans who had perfected their mining skills in Mexico were threatening their control over gold mining in California in the mid-1800s, Americans imposed foreign miner taxes to make it too expensive for foreigners to compete. Similar crackdowns on Japanese and Chinese migrants to the West Coast occurred in the late 1800s.

But the U.S.-Mexico border was largely unregulated until the early 20th century because Anglo-American agribusinesses required a source of low-paid, low-skilled labor who wouldn’t complain about their low wages and poor treatment. With a porous border and wages that were low by our standards, yet still better than what was available in Mexico and Central America, American farmers’ cheap, reliable, docile labor supply was assured. Workers came here when there was work, and they went back across the border when there wasn’t. They kept their culture to themselves, and they didn’t threaten the dominant white, Anglo culture.

Douglas Massey, a migration/immigration demographer at Princeton University, has explained that this cycle of two-way migration went undisrupted until a series of immigration reforms in the late 20th century began to raise the risks and costs associated with crossing back and forth across the border. It became more likely that if you had braved the journey and paid and enormous sum to reach the United States, you weren’t likely to go back to your native country.

The three revolutions Martin talked about make it much easier to reach the U.S. and make it easier to obtain information about how to get here. Martin explained the impact of these revolutions here, but here is a summary of each:

  • The Transportation Revolution: After weeks at sea, it took a typical indentured servant four to six years to work off the debt incurred by moving to Britain’s American colonies. Now, it takes two to three years for a typical immigrant laborer to repay his or her airfare. If they paid a smuggler to sneak them into the country, their cost of $20,000 would take longer than the price of airfare, but the journey was much shorter.
  • The Rights Revolution: This affects migrants’ ability to stay in the nations to which they move. After the Second World War, most of the industrial nations increased the right to stay within their borders in order to prevent fascism from happening again. Most granted social or economic rights to residents in their welfare states without discriminating between citizens and migrants.
  • The Communication Revolution: It took weeks for an American Colonial Era indentured servant to get word back to his or her family in Europe to say how well things were going and how to reconnect with them. Not so today: Cell phones, the Internet, money wire transfers, and satellite TV make it possible to instantaneously vet conditions in other nations and figure out where to seek a better life, as well as to send word to relatives about how to cross international borders.

Here’s an astonishing figure: Less than 10 percent of farm employers in the U.S. hire 60 percent of farm workers. Most of the labor on farms is done not by farm owners, but by hired laborers, and Martin said most hired farmworkers are in the U.S. without authorization. Interestingly, while the biggest farm employer in the U.S., Dole, employes 15,000 migrant workers, Driscoll’s (you’ve probably eaten their berries) has NO farm workers on its payrolls, instead relying on labor contractors. These labor contractors are typically bilingual intermediaries who build work crews and bring them to the farms, which pay minimum wage plus 30 to 35 percent to take care of labor taxes. With unauthorized labor, somebody is pocketing that extra money, but it’s not going to the federal government to help with Social Security and FICA taxes.

In this arrangement, the corporate farms are doing just fine. The labor contractors are doing just fine. As for migrant workers? It’s a mixed bag. Take the community of Parlier, a California migrant farming town where the per capita income is $10,000 a year. The farmworkers of Parlier are much poorer than the typical American worker, whose average household income is about $50,000 a year. Housing is concentrated and cramped, with a population density comparable to that of Manhattan. But they’re still better off than they would be in Mexico, where they might not be able to find regular work at all. They came for a better life and for better opportunities for their children. So what about the children?

“If you ask their kids what they want to do with their lives, all they can tell you is they DON’T want to do what their parents do,” Martin said. “If you press them, they’ll say, ‘I want to be an astronaut,’ or ‘I want to be a football player,’ but with a high school graduation rate of less than 50 percent, that’s just not plausible.”

He did mention the town has a huge ag worker service economy. The town wants economic development, but that’s unlikely, given the state of the schools and employers’ desire for a highly educated workforce.

“The main ways out are government jobs like the working at the post office,” Martin said. “Or the military. Or a lot of them turn to gangs.”

Is there a saner way of managing immigration in the U.S.? Martin pointed to Canada.

“They have a point system, and the result is that half of Canada’s immigrants have B.A.’s,” Martin said. “Compare that to the United States, which relies on family reunification as a guide. The result is lots of low-skill immigrants.”

Slavery is real and plays a huge role in feeding America, and it will continue if we keep buying everyday items from those who exploit immigrants, author John Bowe said tonight at Auburn University.

Bowe details the desperate paths that lead immigrants from Mexico, India, and other parts of the developing world to the U.S. in his book Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy.

Here’s one example Bowe gave Thursday in his talk to a full auditorium at Foy Hall: A couple of laborers in southern Mexico, “people from near Cancun, but not beach guys,” could barely find enough work to feed their families, so they get help from a coyote — a Mexican term for an immigrant smuggler — to cross the border into New Mexico, where the coyote puts them up in a shack until one day he says, “Do you want to hop in the van and go to Florida?”

Unfamiliar with the area, unable to speak English in a place where it’s the unofficial language of the land, ignorant of basic details about their location and therefore dependent on the coyote to tell them their next move, they agreed. Twenty-seven workers piled into a van rigged with super-tough suspension for the three-day drive with no food and no bathroom stops. “They told me they just passed a jug,” Bowe said. Their destination: Immokalee, Fla., which Bowe called “one of those places in the world that’s been belching out horrible things for a long time — it used to be African-Americans who were exploited there, and then it was the Haitians, and then the Caribbeans, and now, Mexicans.”

Immokalee is where they met a labor contractor nicknamed El Diablo, Spanish for “the Devil” — “He even looks like the devil, with bloodshot eyes,” Bowe said.

“So you want to work for me?” El Diablo asked. “I paid the coyote $1,000 to bring you here. Now you all owe me $1,000, and you’ll work it off. If you don’t, and you run away, I’ll pump you full of lead and throw you to the alligators.”

How modern slavery works

This is modern slavery, Bowe said, coerced labor under the threat of violence and under circumstances that make it almost impossible to escape. Tennessee Ernie Ford sang “I owe my soul to the company store” in reference to the plight of coal miners who overreached their credit by buying food from their employers. Something just like that accounts for much of the migrants’ economic dependence on El Diablo, who overcharged them for barracks-style housing, made them overpay for groceries at his wife’s store, and deducted those expenses from their pay and left each with $20 a week for their labor, which they felt duty-bound to send home to feed their families. “We realized we were in their pocket,” one migrant told Bowe. They were stuck.

Their poverty and suffering, Bowe said, have benefitted multinational beverage companies such as Tropicana and Pepsi and fast-food corporations such as McDonald’s and Taco Bell that enjoy lower prices on produce used in their products. Bowe said 80,000 to 90,000 migrant workers, mostly in the United States without authorization, pick oranges for labor contractors who managed the harvest for companies such as Lykes Brothers and Consolidated Citrus. These companies sell to Tropicana, which Bowe said posted revenue of $2 billion a year that helped pad the bottom line of its parent company, Pepsico, which posted $65 billion in revenue.

Bowe began to lose some of the audience when he showed a slide illustrating that wealth in the United States is so concentrated that the top 1 percent would own the northwest quarter of the Lower 48 states, an area from roughly the Oklahoma Panhandle to the Canadian border and from the Colorado-Kansas line to the Pacific Ocean.

“He’s interesting,” a woman muttered to her neighbor as she rose from her seat to leave Foy Auditorium. “But I don’t think I believe him.”

She was the kind of skeptic Bowe seemed most worried about: those who simply could not believe that slavery by any definition exists.

“That disconnect, where you hear something wrong and don’t know what it is, and you think this can’t be real, that’s how we think about slavery,” Bowe said. “And you don’t know about it so you don’t feel a need to do something about it, and that is what I wanted to write about.”

People are loath to do anything about this modern form of peon slavery, Bowe said, and have been reluctant to fix the system for hundreds of years.

“The enslaver always says, ‘I’m only trying to help these people from the Third World,’” Bowe said. Yet enjoying the fruits of others’ unpaid labor has its price. Bowe pointed to Benjamin Franklin, who said slavery ruined the economy by making it impossible for free labor to compete with slave labor and ruined society by making the children of slavers lazy, spoiled, entitled, stupid and arrogant.

What you can do to stop modern slavery

“I used to really suck at offering solutions to this,” Bowe said. But he recommended we all do three things to break the cycle of exploitation and reward for corporations:

  • Buy locally: Buy your food from local vendors and buy your clothing from local manufacturers. Bosses can’t mistreat their workers if they have to see their customers every day and their customers know what’s going on.
  •  Support activists: The Campaign for Fair Food engages in low-cost, highly effective lobbying by picketing outside the headquarters of multinational corporations that rely on exploitation by labor contractors. Recent targets include Wendy’s and Taco Bell, and activists are now focusing on Publix and Whole Foods. He pointed to the Coalition of Immokalee Workers and the Student/Farmworker Alliance. “It’s cute that these companies are spending all this money on social responsibility, but most of it’s a waste of time. They’re like sharks: You can talk nice to a shark all you want, but it’s more effective to whack them on the nose, and they’ll go away. Milton Friedman figured this out a long time ago: Corporations are designed to maximize shareholder profits and won’t respond until they see their behavior drives away customers and embarrasses shareholders. Nobody wants to go on the record supporting slavery, so we’ve got that going for us.”
  • Become an activist yourself: “Get up off your ass and get involved,” Bowe said. “I know you want to think pressing a button on the Internet, ‘I oppose slavery,’ and that’s it, will do it. It won’t.” The Student/Farmworker Alliance plans actions in Atlanta and other major Southern cities in the coming weeks, he said, so go to their websites, make contact with protest organizers, and join the fight.

You don’t have to turn it into your mission in life.

“I don’t do this full time,” Bowe said. “I don’t have it in me to be angry 24/7. Your options are either kill the rich or help lift up the poor.”

I was an assistant news editor at the Santa Fe New Mexican on September 11, 2001. The experiences of victims, firefighters, police, soldiers, sailors and airmen are the first things most people think of when 9/11 is mentioned. Their sacrifices were the most heroic acts and tragic losses of that terrible day. But journalists also had a role: helping communities stricken by fear, sadness, confusion and grief understand what had just happened. This is how the day unfolded in our newsroom after New York and Washington were attacked and a second attempt to strike D.C. again was foiled over Pennsylvania.

Santa Fe is in the Mountain Time Zone, two hours behind the East Coast. Attacks that happened between 8:46 and 9:03 a.m. in New York occurred between 6:46 and 7:03 a.m. our time. I had worked the night shift on Monday night, got off work at 1 a.m. and went to bed at 1:30 a.m. My work week ran Thursday through Monday with Tuesdays and Wednesdays off. My Tuesday routine was to roll out of bed at 9 after seven and a half hours of sleep and head to the Spanish class I was taking at Santa Fe Community College.

About 8 a.m., the phone rang and my boss told me the news: A plane had struck the World Trade Center. The nation might be under attack. We’re putting out a special noon edition. We need you to come in and help produce it. I called my prof to let him know I would miss my morning class and probably my lab section in the afternoon. He said he understood.

My groggy mind quickly filled with questions: A plane? What kind of plane? A military plane? A civilian plane? Was it an accident? Was anyone hurt? How many? Was it intentional? How big was the plane? If it was civilian, was it a commuter jet? A small private plane? A jetliner? How many people are in the building? What time is it there? Does the time of day mean there might have been fewer people?

If it was intentional, who attacked us? Why did they do it?

A newsroom, like an army, lives on its stomach. When I got in to work, the top editors had ordered breakfast and coffee for the crew. The morning news meeting convened at 9 a.m. The goal was to have a four-page special edition on the press by noon. That was three hours to produce four wide-open pages.

City desk sent eight reporters out to get local reaction as soon as the bulletin came over the Associated Press wire that terrorism was suspected. We had a local story in the works about whether Santa Fe was prepared to deal with a terror attack. The business editor monitored the markets to see how they would react. On the copy and design desk, another editor and I sifted stories as they came in over the wires. It was so hard to keep up with it because AP was sending everything in adds. “Adds” are sections of a developing story that are sent out piece by piece, sometimes three or four paragraphs at a time, sometimes one or two paragraphs at a time, sometimes just a sentence. That day, almost all of the adds came one sentence at a time.

At one point, AP didn’t know where President Bush was. He was rumored to be in danger.

Soon came word that the Federal Aviation Administration had cleared the skies and any private plane that did not respond would be shot down.

About 10 a.m., the first shocked first-person stories rolled in over the wires. People were holding hands jumping out windows at the World Trade Center. Firefighters asked why they got to live when some of their brothers died inside when the towers collapsed.

About 11 a.m., we debated which photo to put on the front page. One of the photo editors said we should run a picture of the smoking World Trade Center that showed people falling to the ground because that was the news, that was what happened, that was reality and we shouldn’t shield people from it. In the end, we agreed that a photo showing people running away from the base of the towers illustrated the fear and the scale of the attack without being distasteful.

About 11:15, the local stories started coming through. We assigned two copy editors to read each one simultaneously – one on the computer and one on a printout. After they finished, they conferred to make sure they had caught every error, clarified confusing points, and had the latest information. The reporters stood by to answer questions about content as the editors tabbed through word by word and scrolled down line by line.

While that happened, the city editor, managing editor, an assistant editor and the front-page designer conferred about story play on the front page. This normally would have taken place four or five hours before deadline when we had a good idea of what each of the stories would be. Time was not a luxury we had that morning. We only knew exactly what we were going to put in the paper 45 minutes before deadline.

My role at that point was copy desk chief. Another senior editor and I split the stories as they came in and gave them a final read before sending them to the designer to put on the page. We had already filled two pages. The content we read at that point would go on the front page and the jump page. As we read all the stories, we wrote “refers,” sometimes called teases, to put in a box on the front pointing readers to other stories inside.

It was hectic. We made deadline. Then I went to class.

Santa Fe has a special connection to New York. They’re both major American art markets. Lots of New Yorkers have second homes in Santa Fe. Lots of my classmates had family and friends in New York. None worked in the World Trade Center, but some lived nearby. They feared for their loved ones. Nothing made sense.

So my professor turned the class over to me, and I delivered the news I knew. The questions kept coming from my classmates, just as the questions bubbled up when I first heard the news. I could tell them the facts. I could tell them which rumors were unfounded — and there were many. I just couldn’t tell them what it meant and what would happen. “What does this mean?” and “What now?” were particularly urgent questions. It was frustrating to not know the answers.

It was such a whirlwind that morning, I wasn’t sure what good we had done because there were so many unanswered questions. Over the next couple of days, we speculated — in the gallows humor style that journalists use when we’re really scared or shocked or angry or sad but hope to mask it — what anyone might attack in Santa Fe. The one thing we could think of was St. Francis Cathedral, which I actually thought would never be on the radar of a foreign power or a terrorist seeking to strike fear into our hearts. We thought maybe there would be small bomb-vest attacks in a shopping mall or other shopping centers elsewhere. But there was no possibility that could ever happen since we were so far out of the way and the terror value just wouldn’t be that big. Right?

Then I remembered that Los Alamos National Laboratory, with all its nuclear research materials, was just 45 minutes away. My blood ran cold.

I have told this story to my reporting and editing students the last couple of years. I tell them the skills we build together will give them the ability to react to the news instantly and efficiently. That all the experience they can get in their young careers will make it easier to cope in chaotic times in the newsroom. That mastery of AP style and grammar and punctuation are the “small ball” skills that you need to make automatic so you don’t have to even think about them on deadline when big news happens.

I tell students my experience of 9/11 this time of year to give them a slice of a working journalist’s reality and to show them what role we play in times of crisis. I just hope their cohort of journalists, with an array of digital and new media tools and social media and multimedia storytelling skills at their disposal, will be more tenacious than mine at asking questions about how our nation uses its might and about the wisdom of the decisions our leaders make. I urge them to be more vigilant than we in the aftermath of September 11. I pray they will be wiser.

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